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Hypo- and hyperkalemia

Potassium is a main intracellular ion participating in maintaining intracellular tonicity, transmission of nerve impulses, renal functions and contractions of muscles. Disturbances of its plasmatic concentration are very common and serious problem in the intern medicine and belong between 4H/4T reversible causes of cardiac arrest. In this algorithm you will learn how to diagnose them with ECG and how to treat them efficiently. 

Author: Tereza Prokopová, Deana Slovjaková, Kateřina Šalandová, Tereza Šiprová

Institution: Faculty of Medicine at Masaryk University in Brno

Medical discipline: Emergency Medicine

Keywords: hyperkalemia | hypokalemia | ECG changes | kalium

Educational evel: Undergraduate level | Graduate

Potassium is a main intracellular ion participating in maintaining intracellular tonicity, transmission of nerve impulses, renal functions and contractions of muscles. Disturbances of its plasmatic concentration are very common and serious problem in the intern medicine and belong between 4H/4T reversible causes of cardiac arrest. In this algorithm you will learn how to diagnose them with ECG and how to treat them efficiently. 


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Review

Severe hyper- or hypo- kalemia belongs in the list of life threatening situations. This algorithm leads you through basics of recognition of severity of these electolyte disorders. Also it shows the following therapy applied in hospital and prehospital care. In case of hyperkalemia fast diagnosis of cardiac toxicity and right therapy is crucial. In case of hypokalemia the leading role takes agresive substitution. It is crucial to lead the substitution in agreement with rules that tell how to administer therapy in case we don't have secured central venous catheter.

publikováno: 21.5.2019 | last modified on: 28.5.2020