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Crush syndrome also called compression syndrome, is a condition caused by massive compression of...

Crush syndrome

author: Olga Smékalová, MD, Dominika Machajdíková, Deana Slovjaková

Crush syndrome also called compression syndrome, is a condition caused by massive compression of soft tissues, especially muscles, resulting in rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscles), edemas and a risk of hyperkalemia. Myoglobin is released from the injured muscles and causes a severe kidney damage and acute renal failure. This algorithm describes treatment of a patient suffering from crush syndrome, step by step, beginning from the lay first aid up to the final care in hospital.

 
The antibiotic therapy is an important part of care in all medical specialities....

Racional antibiotic therapy

author: Hana Harazim, MD, Zbyněk Švrček, Kateřina Uličná

The antibiotic therapy is an important part of care in all medical specialities. That's why it is necessary to know the general principles. The treatment should be efficient enough, but targeted at the same time. It's essential to think about risks of developing bacterial resistence. This algorithm will lead you through case of a concrete patient, from indication of the therapy to the solution of complications.

 
Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most common accidental poisoning. CO has very strong...

Carbon monoxide poisoning

author: Martina Klincová, MD, Ľubomíra Longauerová, MD, Jakub Zmrzlík, Barbora Žajdlíková

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most common accidental poisoning. CO has very strong binding to hemoproteins and blocks their function. It causes severe tissue hypoxia. Poisoning can result in severe neurological disability, worstly can lead to patient’s death. CO binding is reversible, well-timed and adequate therapy is necessary. 

 
Acute pancreatitis is a high-risk condition to which we must approach from the first suspicion as...

Acute pancreatitis

author: Kateřina Gajdošíková, MD, Anna Ďuriníková, Simona Špaňová

Acute pancreatitis is a high-risk condition to which we must approach from the first suspicion as to the condition potentially life-threatening. Symptoms often vary and can cause severe and long-term complications, or even death. In the algorithm you can practice basic principles of diagnosis and therapy of acute pancreatitis, in an effort to minimize the risk of potential death and cure the patient. At the same time you will be explained why some diagnostic and therapeutic processes are more suitable than others, and in which order it is advisable to apply them.

 
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are the most common pediatric surgical procedures. Tonsillectomy...

Tonsillectomy in children

author: Assoc. Prof. Petr Štourač, MD, Ph.D., Adriana Cibíková, Eva Hlaváčková

Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are the most common pediatric surgical procedures. Tonsillectomy means the surgical removal of the tonsils - paired lymphoid tissues situated on both sides of the back of your throat. These immunocompetent tissues are in the  first line to defend the body against ingested or inhaled pathogens. When tonsils become enlarged or inflamed they may require a surgical removal. Indications for tonsillectomy include recurrent pharyngotonsillitis, chronic tonsillitis, hemorrhagic tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, streptococcal carriage, dysphagia, halitosis, and the suspicion of malignant disease.

 
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a group of chronical painful conditions, which are one of...

Complex regional pain syndrome in children (algoneurodystrophy)

author: Assoc. Prof. Petr Štourač, MD, Ph.D., Adéla Kleinová, Eva Klabusayová

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a group of chronical painful conditions, which are one of common complications after limb injuries. Significant role at its development has hyperactivation of sympaticus (defect in function of autonomic nervous system), which leads to defect in microcirculation and also defect in the pain management. Altogether it leads up to development of neurogenic inflammation. If CRPS is left untreated, irreversible changes evolve and cause permanent invalidisation of the patient. Try to go through the algorithm, determine the diagnosis according to the typical clinical symptoms and indicate appropriate therapy for CRPS on time.

 
Tachyarrytmias are disorders of heart rhytm with heart rate more than 100 bpm. The algorithm is...

Management of tachyarrythmia

author: MUDr. Hana Harazim, MUDr. Tomáš Korbička, Petra Honková, Tereza Prokopová

Tachyarrytmias are disorders of heart rhytm with heart rate more than 100 bpm. The algorithm is focused on supraventricular tachyarythmia nad goes through the situation of SVT with narrow QRS complex and regular rhytm to deblocking atrial flutter with the transfer to ventricle 1:1. It will help us to clarify recommended therapeutic procedures in this situation.

 
Lung carcinoma is the most common tumor in men and the third most frequent in women. Surgical...

Anesthesia for thoracic surgery

author: MUDr. Ivo Křikava, Martina Dvončová, Nikol Englišová

Lung carcinoma is the most common tumor in men and the third most frequent in women. Surgical procedure is one of the standard therapeutic methods. Because this type of surgery intereferes with ventilating functions, it is necessary to approach this procedure specifically from the anesthesiological point of view. This algorithm aims mainly at the choice of preoperative exams of patient’s respiratory system and equipment used during intubation - here plays a significant role the Double Lumen Tube . Moreover, the algorithm deals with the choice of ventilation mode as well as with other specific aspects of this type of surgery. Last but not least, it suggests a situation when the ventilation and oxygenation starts to fail despite the targeted interventions of the anesthesiologist.

 
Febrile seizures are an age-related phenomenon. Manifestation is characterised by...

Febrile seizures

author: MUDr. Ľubomíra Longauerová, MUDr. Martina Bošková, Radim Gerstberger Zuzana Horváthová Lenka Knedlíková

Febrile seizures are an age-related phenomenon. Manifestation is characterised by convulsive/cramping states typically generalised tonic-clonic seizures with the possibility of loss of consciousness, disorders of vegetative and regulatory functions. The origin of the febrile convulsions is connected with onset and initial phase of an infectious disease. Within the scope of classification we distinguish simple and complicated seizures with more serious course and consequences which can progress into serious life threatening epileptic state (lat. status epilepticus). Differential diagnostics is based on exclusion of neuroinfectious condition, convulsive states of non-infectious origin, epileptic seizures and febrile syncope.

 
Cerebrovascular accident is an acute condition, which is caused by interruption of blood supply of...

Cerebral vascular accident

author: MUDr. Roman Štoudek, David Mišurec, Katarína Sakalová

Cerebrovascular accident is an acute condition, which is caused by interruption of blood supply of some part of the brain. Ischemic CVA includes 80% cases of all CVA and it is result of occlusion blood vessel by a thrombus. The cells of the brain will start to die without oxygen supply, we also lose the functions which are controlled by affected area. Clinical symptoms of patients include motional dysfunctions of facial muscles or limbs, balance disorders, sudden intensive headache, vision disorderes or speaking problems. Essencial factor of successful treatment is a quick and right diagnosis of ischemic CVA because of limited interval for tPA application. Consequences of the ictus correlate with localisation and extend of damaged tissue. 

 
Spinal trauma is an injury of the spine and spinal cord. If the patient suffers from polytrauma...

Spinal injury

author: MUDr. Olga Smékalová, MUDr. Jan Hudec, Tomáš Stuchlík, David Hruška

Spinal trauma is an injury of the spine and spinal cord. If the patient suffers from polytrauma e.g., the symptoms of life-threatening injuries may mask the symptoms of spinal injury and spinal cord injury can develop by careless manipulation with the patient. If there is a history of sudden acceleration or deceleration (traffic accidents, falls, sports injuries), there is always the possibility of spinal injury. Our algorithm takes you through spinal trauma from first aid to late complications.

 
Cancer pain significantly reduces the quality of life of patients with cancer. Therapy of cancer...

Cancer Pain Therapy

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, Lucia Chnupová, Pavla Chromá, Karolina Steinerová

Cancer pain significantly reduces the quality of life of patients with cancer. Therapy of cancer pain is a conjoined part of cancer complex care. Despite this fact, enough attention is quite often not paid to adequate treatment. The algorithm refers to the fundamental principles of the treatment of cancer pain in accordance with recent recommendations.

 
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurring seizures of uncontrolled brain neuron excitatory...

Epilepsy

author: MUDr. Hana Harazim, Radka Kadlčíková, Mária Moravská

Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurring seizures of uncontrolled brain neuron excitatory activity, resulting in a cerebral dysfunction. The seizures can be caused as the result of a head trauma, brain tumor or inflammation, brain stroke or due to different metabolic changes. They can also be idiopathic. Most of the seizures end spontaneously, but some continue for a long time or the patient remains unconscious. This situation is called the status epilepticus and it is considered to be a life threatening situation.

 
Labour pain appearing during uterine contractions is a reaction of a pregnant woman’s...

Obstetric analgesia

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, Bc. Zuzana Brachaczková, Petra Holečková, Lenka Nedomová

Labour pain appearing during uterine contractions is a reaction of a pregnant woman’s organism preparing for labour. Intensity of labour pain is individual, because perception of pain is affected by somatic, mental and social factors. Therefore, approach to analgesia must be individual as well. Currently, any of many farmacological and non-farmacological means can be used. Epidural analgesia is one of the most commonly used means, lately accompanied by remifentanil. Correctly indicated and administered labour analgesia may help to reduce incidence of labour complications at both mother and child.

 
The Mountain Rescue Service in Czech Republic provides more than 6000 rescue operations every year....

Ski slope injury

author: MUDr. Martina Kosinová, Lucie Janalíková, Ľudovít Kadlec

The Mountain Rescue Service in Czech Republic provides more than 6000 rescue operations every year. About a half of the accidents occures in ski slope skiing. The most common injuries are joint injuries, contusions and fractures. Our algorithm introduces you to the management of the ski slope injury from the layman´s first aid to the professional prehospital and hospital care.

 
To think about the most serious complication of Abdominal aortic aneurysm - the rupture is very...

Rupture of AAA

author: MUDr. Martina Kosinová, MUDr. Lukáš Korbel, Kateřina Gajdošíková, Daniela Hahnová

To think about the most serious complication of Abdominal aortic aneurysm - the rupture is very important because even banal difficulties such as backache, epigastric pain or vomiting could be a harbinger of a lethal end. After asymptomatic period, condition can lead to hemorrhagic shock in few hours. Due to risk factors which are widely distributed in our population (smoking, hypertension, atherosclerosis, age) and the prevalence of aneurysm which is not negligible (2.5 – 5 %), the risk of rupture is very high. It depends on size – the risk of rupture 6 cm aneurysm in 5 years is 33 %, in case of aneurysm with diameter above 7 cm is up to 95 %.

 
Malignant hyperthermia is a rare life-threatening disease that is characterised by pathologic...

Malignant Hypertermia

author: MUDr. Lukáš Dadák, Veronika Gulová, Eva Hoštáková

Malignant hyperthermia is a rare life-threatening disease that is
characterised by pathologic hypermetabolic condition at the muscle tissue level. Susceptibility to MH is often inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder and the episode is triggered by esposure to certain drugs - succinylcholine and volatile anesthetic agents. It usually occurs during general anesthesia or within the first few hours of recovery from anesthesia.
In the following algorithm you will learn how to recognise MH episode and how to deal with such situation.

 
Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition in which the main artery of the lung or one of...

Pulmonary embolism

author: MUDr. Ivo Křikava, Martin Minárik, Eva Mikulčíková

Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition in which the main artery of the lung or one of its branches is blocked by a substance that is most commonly a blood clot. The blood clot is formed mainly in the deep veins of the legs or pelvis. Embolization is then the process of breaking off the thrombus from its origin and migrating to the lung. There are many patients affected by this condition and often it is not recognised properly. It is very important to be able to diagnose this condition and to cure it.

 
Pulmonary oedema is fluid accumulation in the lungs. It leads to impaired gas exchange and may...

Pulmonary oedema

author: MUDr. Ivo Křikava, Markéta Kleinová, Lucie Jamborová

Pulmonary oedema is fluid accumulation in the lungs. It leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure. It is due to either failure of the heart to remove fluid from the lung circulation or a direct injury to the lung parenchyma. Treatment depends on the cause, but focuses on maximizing respiratory function and removing the cause. Terapy must be fast and intensive. This algorithm takes us through the situation from ensuring the patient in prehospital care until professional treatment and therapy in the hospital.

 
Laryngospasm is an acute life-threatening condition caused by reflex closure of the rima glotidis...

Laryngospasm

author: MUDr. Hana Harazim, Monika Ďuricová, Jan Blahut

Laryngospasm is an acute life-threatening condition caused by reflex closure of the rima glotidis by the vocal cords. Presence of saliva, blood, stomach contents, supraglottic airway device and manipulation with laryngoscope in the hypopharynx in state of partial consciousness may contribute to the development of this condition. Laryngospasm occurs more often in children, young adults or in obese people during extubation procedure when the patient is not yet fully recovered from general anaesthesia. The following algorithm introduces a recommended management of severe laryngospasm.

 
Difficult airway management is an urgent, life threatening situation, which is a nightmare of every...

Difficult airway management

author: MUDr. Lukáš Dadák, Adéla Sotolářová, Karolina Steinerová

Difficult airway management is an urgent, life threatening situation, which is a nightmare of every anaesthesiologist. We can speak about difficult airway managent if we repeteadly cannot intubate or if it takes longer then 10 minutes. Difficult airway management it to be expected when the pacient has limited cervical spine movement, neck and face injury or in pregnancy.

 
The wrong therapeutic approach in some cases of drug intoxication can cause worse consequences than...

Drug intoxication

author: MUDr. Roman Štoudek, MUDr. Ľubomíra Longauerová, Adrián Sahaj, Kristína Hubschová

The wrong therapeutic approach in some cases of drug intoxication can cause worse consequences than the intoxication itself and therefore it is important to think of the drug intoxication in terms of differencial diagnosis. Our algorithm describes the diagnosis and possible solutions of complications caused by the intoxication with recreational drugs.

 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway...

Acute asthma

author: MUDr. Roman Štoudek, MUDr. Martina Kosinová, Mária Bačíková, Monika Bendíková

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and leads to recurrent episodes of dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness and coughing. Acute asthma is a life-threatening condition requiring hospitalization. It responds badly to basic treatment. Because of the constantly increasing number of patients with asthma, it is important to know, how to deal with this difficult condition.¨

 
The Caesarean section is an operation, when the baby is delivered by a surgical way. There are many...

Caesarean section

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Tomáš Korbička, Gabriela Matuščinová, Petra Polochová, Klára Přichystalová

The Caesarean section is an operation, when the baby is delivered by a surgical way. There are many indications for this medical help. Our algorithm follows three types of anaesthesiology (general, epidural and spinal), which can be used, and the complications, which can come during the operation. Unpreparedness and insufficient help could be dangerous not just for the baby, but also for the patient.

 
Life-threatening haemorrhage can be defined in many aspects: by extent of blood loss- loss of blood...

Life-threatening haemorrhage

author: MUDr. Olga Smékalová, MUDr. Michaela Drašková, Veronika Michalčinová, Zuzana Mišutková

Life-threatening haemorrhage can be defined in many aspects: by extent of blood loss- loss of blood volume during 24 hours (in an adult of about 10 units of RBC transfusion) or a loss of 50% of blood volume during three hours or continuous blood loss of over 150 ml / min; by the presence of clinical and laboratory signs of tissue hypoperfusion or signs of organ functions failure. Sometimes bleeding is not associated with major blood loss, but it threatens the life by localization of bleeding to the regions important for maintaining vital functions (eg. CNS).

 
Acid base balance is dynamic balance between the formation and elimination of sour and alkaline...

Acid-base balance

author: MUDr. Elena Krátka, Vlastimil Koziel, Daniela Hahnová

Acid base balance is dynamic balance between the formation and elimination of sour and alkaline substances in organism. It is regulated very accurately which is necessary for the right course of a range of metabolic pathways and physiological processes. Disorders of acid base balance are always a complex problem where the whole internal environment of the patient is changing. The ability of timely recognition and of proper solution of those deviations is absolutely radical in clinical practice. Our algorithm is going to show you how to go about it.

 
Not every gravidity would end up with labor at term. During pregnancy there could be many...

Newborn resuscitation

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, Ph.D., MUDr. Ľubomíra Longauerová, Terezie Lásková, Hana Pulkrábková

Not every gravidity would end up with labor at term. During pregnancy there could be many complications, either with mother or child, that result in premature birth. One of these complications can be hypoxia of baby. In that case premature birth ends with delivering hypoxic baby with very low Apgar score. In Algorithm „Newborn resuscitation“ you can try what to do in such a situation.

 
Childhood is characterized by the occurrence of large amounts of infectious diseases, some of them...

Acute laryngitis in children

author: MUDr. Hana Harazim, Michaela Knollová

Childhood is characterized by the occurrence of large amounts of infectious diseases, some of them even life-threatening. The occurrence of menacing acute epiglottitis in children was reduced by the introduction of vaccination against Haemofillus influenzae B and therefore it is far more frequent to encounter an obstruction of the upper airway caused by acute laryngitis. It starts suddenly from full health or follows catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. Most often occurs at night as inspiratory dyspnea with inspiratory stridor. Now you can learn how to deal with this serious clinical condition through our algorithm.

 
Eclampsia is life-threatening pregnancy complication that is characteristic by tonic-clonic...

Eclampsia

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, Jiří Bosák, Karla Voráčová

Eclampsia is life-threatening pregnancy complication that is characteristic by tonic-clonic seizures. The patient is usually warned by obvious symptoms, but sometimes the eclampsia appears unexpected. It requires immediate intervention of seizure suppression, high blood pressure decrease and quick delivery. Due to the seriousness, an unexpected beginning and the progress, the main protection is prevention and diagnosis of preeclampsia that is easily treatable.

 
Acute abdomen is one of the classic cases of acute medicine. Due to the threat of serious...

Acute abdomen

author: MUDr. Hana Harazim, Zdeněk Drlík

Acute abdomen is one of the classic cases of acute medicine. Due to the threat of serious complications it is necessary to recognize it early and treat appropriately. In the case of surgical intervention, the patient is at high risk of aspiration of gastric contents during induction of general anesthesia. Our algorithm focuses on the topic from the perspective of anesthesiologist, especially on the correct rapid induction of anesthesia (Rapid Sequence Induction-RSI, flash introduction, crush introduction).

 
Peripartal life-threatening haemorrhage is defined as sudden and uncontrolled blood loss, which is...

Peripartal bleeding

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, Kristýna Malá, Jan Hudec, Vojtěch Hurčík

Peripartal life-threatening haemorrhage is defined as sudden and uncontrolled blood loss, which is clinically estimated at 1500 ml and more, and which is associated with the onset of clinical and/or laboratory signs of tissue hypoperfusion.

 
Heart arrest is one of the common life-threatening situation which can face all of us during normal...

ALS in adult

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Zuzana Ďurišová, Eva Uvízlová, Martin Vašíček

Heart arrest is one of the common life-threatening situation which can face all of us during normal life especially then medical stuff in hospitals. Our algorithm describes briefly and exatly basic life supporting actions in case of heart arrest and advanced life support provided by emergency team. 

 
The Diabetes mellitus algorithm describes step-by-step prehospital and subsequently hospital...

Diabetes mellitus

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Michaela Drašková, Mayra Bermúdes, Monika Ťažká

The Diabetes mellitus algorithm describes step-by-step prehospital and subsequently hospital process of treatment of the hyperglycaemic coma. The algorithm is processed in the prehospital phase from the perspective of a non-medical professional and a medical professional at the scene of an incident to make sure to emphasize basic life functions.

 
Meningococcal sepsis, meningococcal meningitis and sepsis combinated with menigitis are caused by...

Meningococcal sepsis

author: MUDr. Elena Krátka, Lukáš Korbel, Michaela Gemrotová

Meningococcal sepsis, meningococcal meningitis and sepsis combinated with menigitis are caused by gram negative diplococcus Neisseria meningitidis and are understood under exression invasive meningococcal disease. Appreciable part of population are healthy carriers of this microbe. On the other hand it can cause fulminant and often fatal disease. Algorithm shows a typical case of IMD and the most important principles of its treatment.

 
Childbirth in the field is situation which can confront every one of us. For this case an...

Childbirth in the field

author: MUDr. Hana Harazim, MUDr. Michaela Drašková, Eva Filipová, Veronika Horváthová, Michaela Knollová, Táňa Novotná

Childbirth in the field is situation which can confront every one of us. For this case an algorithm was created, where you find yourself in the position
of emergency doctor called to assist the progressing childbirth. Here's your chance to get familiar with the proper medical guidance of the childbirth in the field.

 
Methanol intoxication has become a very actual topic within last year. The great danger of...

Methanol intoxication

author: MUDr. Lenka Baláková, Katarína Kačmárová, Romana Dúbravická

Methanol intoxication has become a very actual topic within last year. The great danger of accidental poisoning lies in inability to recognize methanol while drinking it and distinguish it from ethanol and so avoid drinking greater amount of it. This algorithm takes us through the situation from ensuring the patient in prehospital care until professional treatment and therapy in the hospital.

 
Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but very serious and dramatic complication in pregnancy. It is...

Anaphylaxis in obstetrics - amniotic fluid embolism

author: MUDr. Ivana Bártíková, MUDr. Olga Smékalová, Vlastimil Koziel, Alžběta Šátková, Barbora Kozlovská, Daniel Kotleba

Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but very serious and dramatic complication in pregnancy. It is one of the most common causes of maternal death worldwide, with mortality approaching 80%. Diagnosis is based only on clinical signs, it is used the elimination procedure - "diagnosis per exclusionem". This algorithm describes from the perspective of an anesthesiologist this emergent situation and subsequent diagnosis.

 
The Injury caused by an electric current can often threaten a human life. We would like to...

Electrical injury

author: MUDr. Olga Smékalová, Martina Šablaturová

The Injury caused by an electric current can often threaten a human life. We would like to demonstrate how to act when you witness this kind of accident.

 
Postdural puncture headache is one of the complications of central blockades.  It arises most...

Post-dural Puncture Headache

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, Ľubomíra Longauerová, Jiří Táborský

Postdural puncture headache is one of the complications of central blockades.  It arises most often in connection with a previous puncture of  epidural or spinal space as a result of perforation of the dura mater and arachnoidea. A cerebrospinal fluid is leaking from the gap in dura mater. It leads to a drop  of pressure of cerebrospinal fluid and it can cause headaches. The following algorithm will try to bring the diagnosis and the treatment of this condition.

 
Sufficient analgesia in the practitioners´ ambulance is often underestimated part of daily...

Analgesia in a GP practice

author: MUDr. Ivo Křikava, Martina Kosinová, Elena Jurisová

Sufficient analgesia in the practitioners´ ambulance is often underestimated part of daily routine in patients care. We can often see underdosing of analgesics due to fear of overdose or addiction to opioids.Therefore, we present here the algorithm with a possible therapeutic procedure for chronic hip pain.

 

 
Syncope may be defined as a sign of short term loss of consciousness and/or postural muscle tone....

Syncope

author: MUDr. Ivana Bártíková, Zuzana Markuseková

Syncope may be defined as a sign of short term loss of consciousness and/or postural muscle tone. It may be observed in patients with no cardiovascular diseases of organic origin but it can also be a sign of other serious diseases. Diagnosis of syncope is a tricky one, a lot of it depends on thorough case history taking and physical examination. According to research, up to 25-35% of syncope cases can be diagnosed from case history, or it may at least indicate relevant clinical testing.

 
Severe allergic reaction is life-threatening. It may be observed after insect bite, after eating...

Severe allergic reaction

author: MUDr. Roman Štoudek, Markéta Brandová, Jan Polášek, Renata Schwanzerová

Severe allergic reaction is life-threatening. It may be observed after insect bite, after eating specific food or using some drugs. Most important is early diagnosis and immediate treatment. This algorithm presents possibility of diagnosis and treatment of this severe state.

 
The algorithm describes a real situation of a toxic reaction to local anesthetic at the dentist. It...

Toxic reaction to local anaesthetics in dentistry

author: MUDr. Zdeněk Daněk, Andrea Hajná

The algorithm describes a real situation of a toxic reaction to local anesthetic at the dentist. It generally shows the development from relative overdose to absolute overdose of local anestehticum. The algorithm should thus also contribute to adoptation of important procedures when solving such an acute state.

 
Local anaesthetics are widely used by anaesthesiologists, surgeons or general practitioners. There...

Toxic reactions to local anaesthetics

author: MUDr. Ivo Křikava, Ľubomíra Longauerová, Kristýna Melichárková, Tereza Šafaříková, Alexandra Lamprechtová

Local anaesthetics are widely used by anaesthesiologists, surgeons or general practitioners. There is a risk of severe toxic reactions, which may lead to fatal sequels. This algorithm presents possibilities of minimalisation of the risk and offers the guideline by treatment of severe cardiovascular complication according to current opinions.

 
The algorithm describes a real situation at the dentist - the extraction of the wisdom teeth...

Syncope in dentistry

author: MUDr. Zdeněk Daněk, Eva Bosáková

The algorithm describes a real situation at the dentist - the extraction of the wisdom teeth combined with a pre-operative complication: a syncope complication. Each step of such a situation is outlined to comprehend the whole complexity of the syncope. Sub-questions then one by one describe the evolving state of the patient and offer solutions to particular steps. The correct answer to each of the questions will enable every student to finish the algorithm successfully.

 
The algorithm describes two painful situations in orofacial areas. The first focuses on an acute...

Analgesia in dentistry

author: MUDr. Zdeněk Daněk, Marta Gogolínová

The algorithm describes two painful situations in orofacial areas. The first focuses on an acute postoperative pain after third molar surgery and recommended strategy for analgesia. The second situation concentrates on a chronic pain in temporomandibular joint. Besides, the second one also offers a therapy in various stages of the disease. Students should learn (about) not only recommended principles of conservative treatment, but also possible subsequent surgical therepy.

 
Myocardial infarction (heart attack) is one of the most common causes of death in our population....

Acute coronary syndrome

author: MUDr. Lukáš Dadák, PhD., MUDr. Hana Suchomelová, Martina Pleskačová

Myocardial infarction (heart attack) is one of the most common causes of death in our population. Many risk factors contributing to its genesis are spread widely such as smoking, obesity, junk food, lack of exercise, high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. Our algorithm presents you the right way to diagnose and treat heart attack as so as the most frequent mistakes that can endanger the patient.

 
The basic rules of water rescue...or How to help drowning person without drowning yourself.

Water rescue II

author: MUDr. Lenka Baláková, Andrej Černý

The basic rules of water rescue...or How to help drowning person without drowning yourself.

 
The basic rules of water rescue...or How to help drowning person without drowning yourself.

Water rescue I

author: MUDr. Lenka Baláková, Andrej Černý

The basic rules of water rescue...or How to help drowning person without drowning yourself.

 
Rub frostbite with snow? Limber up to heat yourself? Check your knowledge in our algorithm of first...

Hypothermia

author: MUDr. Lenka Baláková, Markéta Brandová

Rub frostbite with snow? Limber up to heat yourself? Check your knowledge in our algorithm of first aid in the mountains.

 
Technical first aid is an indispensable part of pre-hospital care. How about you? Do you know, how...

Car accident

author: MUDr. Lenka Baláková, Anna Janečková

Technical first aid is an indispensable part of pre-hospital care. How about you? Do you know, how to proceed in a traffic accident?

 
Everyone can be involved in a serious car accident. Our algorithm offers you sequence of actions by...

Serious head injuries - invasive monitoring

author: MUDr. Peter Bakalík, MUDr.Petr Štourač, MUDr. Miloš Hons, MUDr. Zdeňek Chvátal, MUDr. Martin Chovanec, Eva Uvízlová, Martin Vašíček

Everyone can be involved in a serious car accident. Our algorithm offers you sequence of actions by serious head injury and its solution using invasive approaches.

 
Acute postoperative pain management is a multidisciplinary task in which they are responsible both...

Acute postoperative pain management

author: MUDr. Ivo Křikava, Martina Kosinová, MUDr. Gabriela Kolářová

Acute postoperative pain management is a multidisciplinary task in which they are responsible both anesthesiologist, surgeon, attending physicians and nurses of postoperative department. For this reason, there is often a transfer of responsibilities between the involved medical staff, and often a poor care of the patient's pain. Early postoperative pain treatment can prevent its chronification. Therefore, we present here the algorithm for the treatment of postoperative pain after pulmonary surgery.

 
Craniocerebral trauma is the most severe injury group, which is associated with high mortality and...

Craniocerebral trauma

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Roman Štoudek, MUDr Michal Izakovič, vendula Štarhová, Kristýna Koželuhová

Craniocerebral trauma is the most severe injury group, which is associated with high mortality and severe permanent consequences. At present, the frequency of brain and skull injury is increasing,it often occurs  as a part of a polytrauma. In our algorithm you will get familiar with direct acute brain injury and its treatment.

 
The algorithm focuses on one of the themes of first aid (Basic Life Support, BLS) directly...

Basic life support: choking in adults

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Zuzana Ďurišová, Lenka Maková, Michal Malý

The algorithm focuses on one of the themes of first aid (Basic Life Support, BLS) directly endangered the patient's life.  His comletation can be useful for both the layman and the person in acute situations already versed. The algorithm was created in accordance with the current guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council 2010.

 
Mastering the principles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation should belong to the personal equipment...

Basic life support in adults

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Zuzana Ďurišová, Lenka Maková, Michal Malý

Mastering the principles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation should belong to the personal equipment of each man. Algorithm in accordance with the current guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council lead through possible pitfalls of this for amateurs and experts crucial life-saving activity.

 
First Aid in children already bring to the trespassing acute stress and severe emotional component....

Basic life support in children

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Zuzana Ďurišová, Lenka Maková, Michal Malý

First Aid in children already bring to the trespassing acute stress and severe emotional component. Come and try out at home possible realistic scenario to help the child, which is described in the current recommendations of the European Resuscitation Council.

 
The presented algorithm provides additional procedure in the current recommendations of the...

Advanced Life Support in bradycardia

author: MUDr. Petr Štourač, MUDr. Zuzana Ďurišová, Lenka Maková, Michal Malý

The presented algorithm provides additional procedure in the current recommendations of the European Resuscitation Council. This is a possible scenario of real emergency ambulance of any medical facility.

 
Sepsis is systemic inflammatory response syndrome of organism caused by infection. It can easily...

Surviving sepsis

author: MUDr. Elena Krátka, MUDr. Lukáš Breyer, Marek Kovář, Marek Kubík

Sepsis is systemic inflammatory response syndrome of organism caused by infection. It can easily extend to a stage of severe sepsis and septic shock with the signs of multiple organ dysfunction even failure requiring extensive organ functions´ support . Increasing number of septic patients revers to the fact that the amount of predisposed individuals in various ways is increasing: patients suffering from imunosupression, undergoing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Early diagnose and immediate and accurate therapy is crucial.